Accelerated Solvent Extractor Accelerated Solvent Extractor

The ASE extracts solid and semisolid samples with liquid solvents at elevated temperatures and pressures for increased efficiency.

Gas Chromatographs Gas Chromatographs

Gas chromatography is the main technique we use to separate out the individual components of very complex mixtures.

High Resolution Mass Spectrometer High Resolution Mass Spectrometer

The autospec combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection.

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

Stable isotope analysis for many different types of substances—organic matter, carbonates, gases and individual organic compounds.

Agilent 6000 Series HPLC-MS Agilent 6000 Series HPLC-MS

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography separates compounds, a Quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer identifies lipids.

Lab Tour Lab Tour

Click here to venture on a virtual, photographic tour of the Summons lab, its facilities, and instruments.

  • Wilhelm, M. B., Davila, A. F., Eigenbrode, J. L., Parenteau, M. N., Jahnke, L. L., Liu, X. L., … & Williams, A., 2017. Xeropreservation of functionalized lipid biomarkers in hyperarid soils in the Atacama Desert. Organic Geochemistry, 103, 97-104, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.10.015.
  • O’Reilly S.S., Mariotti G., Winter A.R., Newman S., Matys E.D., McDermott F., Pruss S.B., Summons R.E., Klepac-Ceraj V. and Bosak T., 2017. Molecular biosignatures reveal common benthic microbial sources of organic matter in ooids and grapestones from Pigeon Cay, The Bahamas. Geobiology, 15, 112-130, doi: 10.1111/gbi.12196.
  • Bosak, T., Schubotz, F., de Santiago-Torio, A., Kuehl, J. V., Carlson, H. K., Watson, N., … & Deutschbauer, A. M, 2016. System-Wide Adaptations of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 to Phosphate-Limited Conditions. PloS one, 11(12), e0168719, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168719.
  • Bhattacharya, S., Dutta, S., & Summons, R. E. (2016). A distinctive biomarker assemblage in an InfraCambrian oil and source rock from western India: Molecular signatures of eukaryotic sterols and prokaryotic carotenoids. Precambrian Research, 290, 101-112, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2016.12.013.
  • Gold D.A., O’Reilly S.S., Luo G., Briggs D.E.G. and Summons R.E., 2016. Prospects for sterane preservation in sponge fossils from museum collections, and the utility of sponge biomarkers for molecular clocks. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 57(2), 181-189, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3374/014.057.0208.
  • Ferralis, N. Matys, E.D., Knoll, A.H., Hallmann, C. and Summons, R.E., 2016. Rapid, direct and non-destructive assessment of fossil organic matter via microRaman spectroscopy. Carbon, 108, 440 – 44, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.07.039.
  • Luo G., Ono S., Beukes N.J, Wang D.T., Xie S. and Summons R.E., 2016. Rapid oxidation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago.  Science Advances, 2(5), e1600134, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600134.
  • Gold D.A., Grabenstatter J, de Mendoza A.,  Riesgo A., Ruiz-Trillo I. and Summons R.E., 2016. Sterol and Genomic Analyses Validate the Sponge, 113(10), 2684–2689, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512614113.
  • Liu X.L., Birgel D., Elling F.J., Sutton P.A., Lipp J.S., Zhu R., Zhang C., Könneke M., Peckmann J.,  Rowland S.J., Summons R.E., and Hinrichs K.-U., 2016. From ether to acid: a plausible degradation pathway of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 183, 138-152, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.04.016.
  • Liu X.-L.,  De Santiago Torio A., Bosak T and Summons R.E., 2016. Novel archaeal tetraether lipids with a cyclohexyl ring identified in Feyetteville Green Lake, NY, and other sulfidic lacustrine settings.  Rapid Communications in Mass spectrometry, 30 (10), 1197-1205, doi:10.1002/rcm.7549.
  • Gold, D. A., Grabenstatter, J., de Mendoza, A., Riesgo, A., Ruiz-Trillo, I., & Summons, R. E. (2016). Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(10), 2684–2689. doi: http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1512614113.
  • Carrasquillo, A. J., Cao, C., Erwin, D. H., & Summons, R. E. (2016). Non-detection of C60 fullerene at two mass extinction horizons. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 176, 18–25. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.12.017.
  • Miller, K. E., Eigenbrode, J. L., Freissinet, C., Glavin, D. P., Kotrc, B., Francois, P., & Summons, R. E. (2016). Potential Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in Gale Crater, Mars, by the SAM instrument suite on the Curiosity Rover. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 121, 296-308, doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004939.
  • Williford, K. H., Ushikubo, T., Lepot, K., Kitajima, K., Hallmann, C., Spicuzza, M. J., et al., Valley, J. W. (2016). Carbon and sulfur isotopic signatures of ancient life and environment at the microbial scale: Neoarchean shales and carbonates. Geobiology, 14(2), 105–28, doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12163.
  • French, K.L., Rocher, D., Zumberge, J.E. and Summons, R.E., 2015.Assessing the distribution of sedimentary C40 carotenoids through time. Geobiology, 13, 139–151, doi: 10.1111/gbi.12126.
  • Ghisalberti M., Gold D.,  Laflamme M., Clapham M.,  Narbonne G., Summons R.E.,  Johnston D.T., Jacobs D.K., 2014. Canopy Flow Models Identify the Advantage of Size in the Oldest Communities of Multicellular Eukaryotes, Current Biology 24, 305-309,  doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.017.
  • Kasprak, A.H., Sepulveda, J., Price-Waldman, R., Williford, K.H., Schoepfer, S.D., Haggart, Ward P.D., Summons, R.E., Whiteside, J.H., 2015. Episodic photic zone euxinia in the northeastern Panthalassic Ocean during the end-Triassic extinction. Geology, 43, 307–310, doi: 10.1130/G36371.1.
  • Tulipani, S., Grice, K., Greenwood, P., Schwark, L., Bӧttcher, M.E., Summons, R.E., Foster, C.B., 2015. Molecular Proxies as Indicators of Freshwater Incursion-Driven Salinity Stratification. Chemical Geology 20, 61–68, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.05.009.
  • Summons, R.E., 2014. The exceptional preservation of interesting and informative biomolecules. In: Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 20, Marc Laflamme, James D. Schiffbauer, and Simon A. F. Darroch (eds.). The Paleontological Society Short Course, October 18, 2014.
  • Summons, R.E., Sessions, A.L., Allwood, A.C., Barton, H.A., Beaty, D.W., Blakkolb, B., Canham, J., Clark, B.C., Dworkin, J.P., Lin, Y., Mathies, R., Milkovich, S.M., and Steele, A., 2014. Planning considerations related to the organic contamination of martian samples and implications for the Mars 2020 rover. Astrobiology, 14(12): 969-1027. doi:10.1089/ast.2014.1244.
  • Rothman, D.H., Fournier, G.P., French, K.L., Alm, E.J., Boyle, E.A., Cao, C. and Summons, R.E., 2014. Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 5462-5467.
  • Lincoln, S.A., Wai, B., Eppley, J.M., Church, M.J., Summons, R.E. and DeLong, E.F., 2014. Reply to Schouten et al.: Marine Group II planktonic Euryarchaeota are significant contributors to tetraether lipids in the ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, E4286-E4286.
  • Schmerk, C.L., Welander, P.V., Hamad, M.A., Bain, K.L., Bernards, M.A., Summons, R.E. and Valvano, M.A. 2014. Elucidation of the Burkholderia cenocepacia hopanoid biosynthesis pathway uncovers functions for conserved proteins in hopanoid-producing bacteria. Environmental Microbiology 17, 735-750.
  • Illing, C.J., Hallmann, C., Miller, K.E., Summons, R.E. and Strauss, H., 2014. Airborne hydrocarbon contamination from laboratory atmospheres. Organic Geochemistry 76, 26-38.
  • Love G.D. and Summons R.E., 2015. The molecular record of Cryogenian sponges – a response to Antcliffe (2013). Paleontology, 58, 1131–1136.
  • Miller K.E, Kotrc B., Summons R.E., Belmahdi I., Buch A., Eigenbrode J.L., Freissinet C., Glavin D.P., Szopa C. 2015. Evaluation of the Tenax trap in the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover as a potential hydrocarbon source for chlorinated organics detected in Gale Crater. JGR Planets, 120, 1446–1459.
  • Bender M., M. Schmidtmann, M. Summons, R.E., Rullkötter, J., Christoffers, J., 2015. A Geomimetic Approach to the Formation and Identification of Fossil Sterane Biomarkers in Crude Oil: 18-nor-D-homo-Androstane and 5α,14β-Androstane. Cehmistry – A European Journal 21,1–9 10.1002/chem.201502148.
  • Baesman S.M., Miller L.G., Wei J.H., Yirang Cho, Matys E.D., Summons R.E, Welander P.V, Oremland R.,S. 2015. Methane oxidation and molecular characterization of methanotrophs from a former mercury mine impoundment. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 290-309; doi:10.3390/microorganisms3020290.
  • Sistiaga, A., Wrangham. R., Rothman, J., Summons R.E., 2015. New insights into the evolution of the human diet from faecal biomarker analysis in wild chimpanzee and gorilla faeces. PLOS ONE 10(6): e0128931. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128931
  • Martindale, R.C., Strauss, J.V., Sperling, E.A., Johnson, J.E., Van Kranendonk, M.J., Flannery, D., French, K., Lepot, K., Mazumder, R., Rice, M.S., Schrag, D.P., Summons, R., Walter, M., Abelson, J. and Knoll, A.H. (2015) Sedimentology, chemostratigraphy, and stromatolites of lower Paleoproterozoic carbonates, Turee Creek Group, Western Australia. Precambrian Research 266, 194-211.
  • Beaupré, S.R., Roberts, M.L., Burton, J.R., Summons, R.E., 2015. Rapid, high-resolution 14C chronology of ooids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 159, 126–138.
  • French, K.L., Hallmann, C., Hope, J.M., Schoone, P.L., Zumberge J.A., Hoshino, Y., Peters, C.A., George, S.C., Love, G.D., Brocks, J.J., Buick, R. and Summons, R.E., 2015. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(19), 5915-5920.
  • Escobedo-Hinojosa, W.I., Vences-Guzmán, M.A., Schubotz, F., Sandoval-Calderón, M., Summons, R.E., López-Lara, I.M., Geiger, O., Sohlenkamp, C., 2015. OlsG (Sinac_1600) is an ornithine lipid N-methyltransferase from the planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Journal of Biological Chemistry jbc.M115.639575. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.639575.
  • Srain, B., Sepúlveda, J., Pantoja, S., Summons, R. E., Quiñones, R. A., Levipan, H., 2014. Archaeal and bacterial assemblages in the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the upwelling ecosystem off Central Chile as determined by organic biomarkers. Gayana 79, 6-43
  • Schubotz F., Hays, L.E., Meyer-Dombard D.R., Gillespie, A., Shock E.L., Summons R.E., 2015. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs. Frontiers in Microbiology 6, Article 42. [doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00042]
  • French, K.L., Rocher, D., Zumberge, J.E. and Summons, R.E., 2015. Assessing the distribution of sedimentary C40 carotenoids through time. Geobiology 13 (2), 139–151. [DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12126]
  • Kasprak, A.H., Sepulveda, J., Price-Waldman, R., Williford, K.H., Schoepfer, S.D., Haggart, Ward P.D., Summons, R.E., Whiteside, J.H., 2015. Pervasive photic zone euxinia in the northeastern Panthalassic Ocean during the end-Triassic extinction. Geology 43, 307–310.
  • Tulipani, S., Grice, K., Greenwood, P., Schwark, L., Bӧttcher, M.E., Summons, R.E., Foster, C.B., 2015. Molecular Proxies as Indicators of Freshwater Incursion-Driven Salinity Stratification. Chemical Geology 20, 61–68
  • Tulipani, S., Grice, K., Greenwood, P., Schwark, L., Bӧttcher, M.E., Summons, R.E., Foster, C.B., 2014. Changes of palaeoenvironmental conditions recorded in Late Devonian reef systems from the Canning Basin, Western Australia: A biomarker and stable isotope approach. Gondwana Research, In Press
  • Summons, R.E. 2014. The Exceptional Preservation of Interesting and Informative Biomolecules. Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 20, Marc Laflamme, James D. Schiffbauer, and Simon A. F. Darroch (eds.). The Paleontological Society Short Course. PDF
  • Lincoln, S.A., Wai, B., Eppley, J.M., Church, M.J., Summons, R.E., and DeLong, E.F. 2014. Planktonic Euryarchaeota are a significant source of archaeal tetraether lipids in the ocean. PNAS, 111(27), 9858–9863. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1409439111
  • Sistiaga A., Mallol, C., Galván, B., and Summons, R. E., 2014, The Neanderthal Meal: a New Perspective Using Faecal Biomarkers. PLOS ONE 9, e101045.
  • Sepúlveda, J., Leider, A., Summons, R.E., Hinrichs, K–U., Isotopic evidence for the role of hydrology and upwelling during cyclic sedimentation in the Late Cretaceous Equatorial Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters
  • Tulipani, S., Grice, K., Greenwood, P., Schwark, L., Bӧttcher, M.E., Summons, R.E., Foster, C.B. Reconstruction of freshwater incursions in stratified marine palaeoenvironments: Origin of methyltrimethyltridecylchromans (MTTCs) In review .
  • Briggs D.E.G and Summons R.E., 2014. Ancient biomolecules: their origin, fossilization and significance in revealing the history of life. BioEssays 36(5): 482–490.
  • Aponte J.C., Tarozo R., Alexandre M.R., Alexander C.M. O’D, Charnley S.B, Hallmann C. Summons R.E. and Huang Y., 2014. Chirality of meteoritic free and IOM-derived monocarboxylic acids and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 131, 1-12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.01.035
  • Arreguin-Rodriguez, G.J., Alegret L., Sepúlveda J., Newman S and Summons R.E., 2014. Enhanced terrestrial input supporting the Glomospira acme across the Paleocene-­‐Eocene boundary in Southern Spain. Micropaleontology 60, 43-51.
  • French, K. L., Sepúlveda, J., Trabucho-Alexandre, J., Gröcke, D. R., and Summons, R. E., 2014, Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 390, 116-127.
  • Hays L.E., Macdonald F., Summons R.E. and Pearson A., 2013. Hydrocarbon biomarkers in Ancient Rocks: Quantifying Internal Signal versus External Contamination. Organic Geochemistry, in review.
  • Ghisalberti M., Gold D.,  Laflamme M., Clapham M.,  Narbonne G., Summons R.E.,  Johnston D.T., Jacobs D.K., 2014. Canopy Flow Models Identify the Advantage of Size in the Oldest Communities of Multicellular Eukaryotes, Current Biology 24, 305-309
  • Biller S.J., Schubotz F., Roggensack S.E.,Thompson A.W., Summons R.E., Chisholm S.W., 2014. Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems. Science 343, 183-186. [DOI:10.1126/science.1243457].
  • Ming, D. W. et al., 2013, Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars: Science 1245267 Published online 9 December 2013 [DOI:10.1126/science.1245267].
  • Grotzinger, J. P. et al., 2013, A Habitable Fluvio-Lacustrine Environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars: Science 1242777 Published online 9 December 2013 [DOI:10.1126/science.1242777].
  • Lee, C., Fike, D. A., Love, G. D., Sessions, A. L., Grotzinger, J. P., Summons, R. E., and Fischer, W. W., 2013, Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman. Geobiology 11, 406-419.
  • Glass, K., Ito, S., Wilby, P.R., Sota, T., Nakamura, A., Russell Bowers, C., Miller, K.E., Dutta, S., Summons, R.E., Briggs, D.E.G., Wakamatsu, K., Simon, J.D., 2013. Impact of diagenesis and maturation on the survival of eumelanin in the fossil record. Organic Geochemistry 64, 29-37.
  • Grabenstatter J., Méhay S., McIntyre-Wressnig A., Giner J.-L., Edgcomb V.P., Beaudoin D.J., Bernhard J.M. and Roger E. Summons R.E., 2013. Identification of 24-n-propylidenecholesterol in a member of the Foraminifera. Organic Geochemistry 63, 145–151.
  • Jahnke L.L, Turk-Kubo K.A., Parenteau M.N., Green S.J., Kubo M.D.Y, Vogel M., Summons R.E. and Des Marais D.J., 2013. Molecular and Lipid Biomarker Analysis of a Gypsum-hosted Endoevaporitic Microbial Community. Geobiology 12, 62-82.
  • Glavin, D. P., Freissinet, C., Miller, K. E., Eigenbrode, J. L., Brunner, A. E., Buch, A., Sutter, B., Archer, P. D., Atreya, S. K., Brinckerhoff, W. B., Cabane, M., Coll, P., Conrad, P. G., Coscia, D., Dworkin, J. P., Franz, H. B., Grotzinger, J. P., Leshin, L. A., Martin, M. G., McKay, C., Ming, D. W., Navarro-González, R., Pavlov, A., Steele, A., Summons, R. E., Szopa, C., Teinturier, S., and Mahaffy, P. R., 2013, Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 118, 1955-1973.
  • Leshin L.A., Mahaffy P.R., Webster C.R., Cabane M., Coll P., Conrad P.G., Archer, Jr. P.D., Atreya S.K., Brunner A.E. Buch A., Eigenbrode J.L., Flesch G.J., Franz H.B., Freissinet C., Glavin D.P., McAdam A.C., Miller K.E., Ming6 D.W. Morris R.V., Navarro-González R., Niles P.B., Owen T., Pepin R.O., Squyres S., Steele A., Stern J.C., Summons R.E., Sumner D.Y., Sutter B., Szopa C., Teinturier S., Trainer M.G., Wray J.J., and Grotzinger J.P., 2013. The First Volatile, Isotope and Organic Analysis of Solid Samples with the Mars Curiosity Rover: Insights into Martian Fines. Science 341 (no. 6153) DOI: 10.1126/science.1238937.
  • Ricci J.N., Coleman M.L., Welander P.V., Sessions A.L., Summons R.E., Spear J.R. and Newman D.K., 2013. Diverse capacity for 2-methylhopanoid production correlates with specific ecological niches.  The ISME Journal advance online publication 24 October 2013; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.191.
  • Schubotz F., Meyer-Dombard D.R., Bradley A.S., Fredricks H.F., Hinrichs K.-U., Shock E.L., and Summons R.E., 2013. Spatial and temporal variability of biomarkers and microbial diversity reveal metabolic and community flexibility in Streamer Biofilm Communities in the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National ParkGeobiology 11:549-569.
  • Lincoln, S. A., Bradley, A. S., Newman, S. A., and Summons, R. E., 2013, Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids in chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Organic Geochemistry 60, 45-53.
  • Edgcomb V.P., Bernhard J.M., Summons R.E., Orsi W., Beaudoin D. and Visscher P.T., 2013. Active eukaryotes in microbialites from Highborne Cay, Bahamas and Hamelin Pool (Shark Bay), Australia. ISME J, doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.130.
  • Summons R.E. and Hallmann C., 2013. Organic Geochemical Signatures of Early Life on Earth. Chapter 10.05 in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition, In Press.
  • Hallmann C. and Summons R.E., 2013. Paleobiological Clues to Early Atmospheric Evolution Chapter 13.5 in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition, In Press.
  • Johnson C.M., McLennan S.M., McSween H.Y. and Summons R.E., 2013. Smaller, better, more: Five decades of advances in geochemistry in Celebrating Advances in Geoscience, Book Chapter for 125th Anniversary of the Geological Society of America.
  • Summons R.E., Bird L.R., Gillespie A.L., Pruss S.B., Roberts M. and Sessions A.L., 2013. Lipid biomarkers in ooids from different locations and ages: evidence for a common bacterial flora Geobiology 11, 420–436.
  • Bernhard J.M., Edgcomb V.P., McIntyre-Wressnig A., Summons R.E. , Visscher P.T., Jeglinski, M., 2013. The potential role of foraminifera in the Neoproterozoic decline of stromatolites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1221721110.
  • Edgcomb, V.P., Bernhard J.M., Beaudoin D., Pruss S., Welander P.V., Schubotz F., Mehay S., Gillespie A.L. and Summons R.E. (2013) Molecular indicators of microbial diversity in oolitic sands of Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Geobiology 11, 234–251.
  • Wakeham S.G., Turich C., Schubotz F., Podlask A., Lic X.N., Varel R., Astor Y., Sáenz J.P., Rush D., Damsté J.S.S., Summons R.E., Mary I. Scranton M.I., Gordon T. Taylor G.T. and Kai-Uwe Hinrichs K.-U., 2012. Biomarkers, Chemistry and Microbiology Show Chemoautotrophy in a Multilayer Chemocline in the Cariaco Basin. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 63, 133–156.
  • Bontognali T.R.R, Sessions A.L., Allwood A.C., Fischer W.W. Grotzinger J.P. , Summons R.E. Eiler J.M., 2012. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 109, 15146-15151.
  • Liu X.-L., Summons R.E. and Hinrichs K.-U., 2012. Extending the known range of glycerol ether lipids in the environment: structural assignments based on MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26, 2295–2302.
  • Welander P.V. and Summons R.E., 2012. Discovery, taxonomic distribution and phenotypic characterization of a gene required for 3-methylhopanoid production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 109, 12905-12910.
  • Summons R.E. and Lincoln S.A., 2012. Biomarkers: Informative Molecules for Studies in Geobiology. In: Fundamentals of Geobiology, First Edition. Eds Knoll A.H, Canfield D.E. and Konhauser K.O., Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 269-296.
  • Liu, X.-L Lipp J.S., Simpson J.H., Lin Y.-S., Summons R.E., Hinrichs K.-U., 2012. Mono- and dihydroxyl glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers in marine sediments: identification of both core and intact polar lipid forms. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 89, 102–115.
  • Garcia Costas, A. M., Tsukatani, Y., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Schouten, S., Welander, P. V., Summons, R. E., and Bryant, D. A., 2012, Identification of the Bacteriochlorophylls, Carotenoids, Quinones, Lipids, and Hopanoids of “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum”. Journal of Bacteriology 194, 1158-1168.
  • Glass K., Ito S., Wilby P.R., Sota T., Nakamura A., Bowers C.R., Vinther J., Dutta S., Summons R.E., Briggs D.E.G., Wakamatsu K., and Simon J.D., 2012. Direct chemical evidence for undegraded eumelanin pigment from the Jurassic Period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), published online ahead of print May 21, 2012.
  • Copley S.D. and Summons R.E., 2012. Terran Metabolism: The First Billion Years. In: Frontiers of Astrobiology, (Impey C., Lunine J. and José Funes J. (Eds). Cambridge University Press, pp. 48-72.
  • Grosjean E., Love G.D., Kelly A.E. and Summons R. E., 2012. Geochemical Evidence for an Early Cambrian Origin of the ‘Q’ Oils and Condensates of North Oman. Organic Geochemistry, 45, 77–90.
  • Welander P.V., Doughty D.M., Wu C.H., Mehay S., Summons R.E., and Newman D.K., 2012. Identification and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 hopanoid biosynthesis mutants. Geobiology 10, 163-177.
  • Liu X.-L., Lipp J.S., Schröder J.M., Summons R.E. and Hinrichs K.-U., 2012. Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkanol diethers: a series of novel archaeal lipids in marine sediments. Organic Geochemistry 43, 50-55.
  • Algeo T., Henderson C., Ellwood B., Rowe H., Elswick E., Bates S, Lyons T., Hower J.C., Smith C., Maynard B., Hays L.E, Summons R.E., Fulton J., and Freeman K.H., 2012. Evidence for a diachronous Late Permian marine crisis from the Canadian Arctic region. Geological Society of America Bulletin doi: 10.1130/B30505.1
  • French K.L., Tosca N..J., Cao C.-Q. and Summons R.E., 2012. Diagenetic and Detrital Origins of Moretane Anomalies in the Late Permian and Early Triassic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 84, 104–125.
  • Saenz J.P., Eglinton T.I., Waterbury J. and Summons R.E., 2012. Hopanoids in marine cyanobacteria: probing their phylogenetic distribution and biological role. Geobiology 10, 311–319.
  • Witkowski C., Gupta N.S, Hong Y., Qin L., Williams C.J., Briggs D.E.G. and Summons R.E., 2012. Molecular preservation of Cenozoic conifer fossil lagerstätten from Banks Island, the Canadian Arctic. Palaios 27, 279-287.
  • Summons R.E., Illing C.J.. van Zuilen M. and Strauss H., 2012. Traces of Life: Biomarkers and Isotopic Tracers. FAR DEEP Atlas Ch. 7.14 (Melezhik V. Ed).
  • Gupta N.S. and Summons R.E. 2011. Fate of Chitinous Organisms in the Geosphere. In: Chitin (ed Gupta NS). Springer Netherlands, pp. 133-151.
  • Falkowski P.G., Algeo T., Codispoti L., Deutsch C., Emerson S., Hales B., Huey R.B., Jenkins W.J., Kump L.R., Levin L.A., Lyons T.W., Nelson N.B., Schofield O.S., Summons R., Talley L.D., Thomas E., Whitney F., Pilcher C.B., 2011. Ocean deoxygenation: Past, present, and future. Eos Trans. AGU, 92, 409.
  • Alegado R.A., Grabenstatter J.D., Zuzow R., Morris A., Huang S.Y., Summons R.E., and King N., 2011. Algoriphagus machipongoensis sp. nov. co-isolated with a colonial choanoflagellate. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Published February 24, 2012 as doi:10.1099/ijs.0.038646-0.
  • Hays L.E, Grice K., Foster C.B and Summons R.E., 2011. Biomarker and Isotopic Trends from a Permian-Triassic Sedimentary Section at Kap Stosch, Greenland. Organic Geochemistry 43, 67-82.
  • Saenz J.P., Wakeham S.G., Eglinton T.I. and Summons R.E., 2011. New constraints on the provenance of hopanoids in the marine geologic record: Bacteriohopanepolyols in marine suboxic and anoxic environments. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1351-1362.
  • Saenz J.P., Eglinton T.I. and Summons R.E., 2011. Abundance and structural diversity of bacteriohopanepolyols in suspended particulate organic matter along a river to ocean transect. Organic Geochemistry 42, 774-780.
  • Doughty D.M., Coleman M.L., Hunter R.C., Sessions A.L., Summons R.E. and Newman D.K., 2011. Hopanoid lipids impact cell division by Rhodopseudomonas palustris at elevated growth temperatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108 (45), E1045-E1051.
  • Dutta S., Tripathib S.M., Mallicka M., Mathews R.P., Greenwood P.F., Raob M.R. and Summons R.E., 2011. Eocene out-of-India dispersal of Asian dipterocarps. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 166, 63-68.
  • Kelly A.E, Love G.D., Zumberge J.E. and Summons R.E., 2011. Hydrocarbon biomarkers of Neoproterozoic to Lower Cambrian oils from eastern Siberia. Organic Geochemistry 42, 640–654.
  • Meyer-Dombard D.R., Swingley W., Raymond J., Havig J., Shock E.L. and Summons R.E., 2011. Hydrothermal Ecotones and Streamer Biofilm Communities in the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Environmental Microbiology 13, 2216–2231.
  • Summons R.E., 2011. The Great Oxidation Event. In: Science Year 2012. World Book Inc. Chicago, p. 28-41.
  • Waldbauer J.R., Newman D.K. and Summons R.E., 2011. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108, 13409–13414. (Class I: Cozzarelli Prize – PNAS)
  • Cody G.D., Gupta S.N., Briggs D.E.G, Kilcoyne A.L.D., Summons R.E., Kenig F., Plotnick R.E. and Scott A.C., 2011. A molecular signature of chitin-protein complex in Paleozoic arthropods. Geology 39, 255-258.
  • Summons R.E., Amend J.P., Bish D.L., Buick R., Cody G.D., Des Marais D.J., Dromart G., Eigenbrode J., Knoll A.H. and Sumner D.Y., 2011. Preservation of Martian Organic and Environmental Records: Final Report of the Mars Biosignature Working Group. Astrobiology 11, 157-181.
  • Hallmann C., Kelly A.E, Gupta S.N. and Summons R.E., 2011. Reconstructing deep-time biology with molecular fossils, in Laflamme, M., Schiffbauer, J.D., and Dornbos, S.Q., eds., Quantifying the Evolution of Early Life, Volume 36: Topics in Geobiology, Springer Netherlands, p. 355-401.
  • Allen, M.A., Burns, B.P., Neilan, B.A., Jahnke, L.L. and Summons, R.E., 2010. Lipid biomarkers in Hamelin Pool microbial mats and stromatolites. Organic Geochemistry 41, 1207-1218.
  • Welander, P.V., Coleman, M., Sessions, A.L., Summons, R.E. and Newman, D.K., 2010. Identification of a methylase required for 2-methylhopanoid production and implications for the interpretation of sedimentary hopanes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 107, 8537–8542. (GS Best Paper Award)
  • Cao C.-Q., Yang Y.C., Shen S.Z., Wang W., Zheng Q.F. and Summons R.E., 2010. Pattern of δ13Ccarb and implications for geological events during the Permian-Triassic transition in South China. Geological Journal 45, 186–194.
  • Tosca N.J., Johnston D.T., Mushegian A., Rothman D.H., Summons R.E. and Knoll A.H., 2010. Clay Mineralogy, Organic Carbon Burial, and Redox Evolution in Proterozoic Oceans. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 1579-1592.
  • Wilson J.P., Fischer W.W., Johnston D.T., Knoll A.H., Grotzinger J.P., Walter M.R., McNaughton N.J., Simon M., Abelson J., Schrag D.P., Summons R.E., Allwood A.A., Andres M., Gammon C., Garvin J., Rashby S., Schweizer M. and Watters W.A., 2010. Geobiology of the late Paleoproterozoic Duck Creek Formation, Western Australia. Precambrian Research 179, 135-149.
  • A comparison of thermal maturity parameters between freely extracted hydrocarbons (Bitumen I) and a second extract (Bitumen II) from within the kerogen matrix of Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Organic Geochemistry 41, 78-87
  • Nabbefeld B., Grice K., Schimmelmann A., Summons R.E, Troitzsch U. and Twitchett R.J., 2010.
  • Nabbefeld B., Grice K., Twitchett R.J., Summons R.E, Hays L.E., Böttcher M.E. and Muhammad Asif M., 2010. An integrated biomarker, isotopic and palaeoenvironmental study through the Late Permian event at Lusitaniadalen, Spitsbergen. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291, 84-96.
  • Bradley A.S. and Summons R.E., 2009. Multiple origins of methane at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297, 34-41.
  • Bradley A.S., Fredricks H., Kai-Uwe Hinrichs K.-U. and Summons R.E., 2009. Structural diversity of diether lipids in carbonate chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Organic Geochemistry 40, 1169-1178.
  • Doughty D.M., Hunter R.C., Summons R.E. and Newman D.K., 2009. 2-Methylhopanoids are maximally produced in akinetes of Nostoc punctiforme: geobiological implications. Geobiology 7, 524–532.
  • Sepúlveda J., Wendler J.E., Summons R.E. and Hinrichs K.-U., 2009. Rapid resurgence of marine productivity after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event. Science 326, 129-132
  • Welander P.V., Hunter R.C., Zhang L., Sessions A.L., Summons R.E. and Newman D.K. , 2009. Hopanoids play a role in membrane integrity and pH tolerance in Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. Journal of Bacteriology 191, 6145–6156.
  • Sessions A.L., Doughty D.M., Welander P.V., Summons R.E. and Newman D.K., 2009. The continuing puzzle of the Great Oxidation Event. Current Biology 19, R567–R574.
  • Bühring S.I., Smittenberg R.H., Sachse D., Lipp J. S., Golubic S., Sachs J. P., Hinrichs K.-U. and Summons R.E., 2009. A hypersaline microbial mat from the Pacific Atoll Kiritimati: insights into composition and carbon fixation using biomarker analyses and a 13C-labeling approach. Geobiology 7, 308–323.
  • Kodner R.B., Knoll A.H. and Summons R.E., 2009, Phylogenetic Investigation of the Aliphatic, Non-hydrolyzable Biopolymer Algaenan, with a Focus on the Green Algae. Organic Geochemistry 40, 854-862.
  • Gupta S.N., Hong Y., Leng Q., Briggs D.E.G., Cody G.D. and Summons R.E., 2009. Diagenesis of plant biopolymers: Decay and macromolecular preservation of Metasequoia. Organic Geochemistry 40, 802-809.
  • Gupta S.N., Cody G.D., Tetlie O.E., Briggs D.E.G. and Summons R.E., 2009. Rapid incorporation of lipids into macromolecules during experimental decay of invertebrates: Initiation of geopolymer formation. Organic Geochemistry 40, 589-594.
  • Sepúlveda J., Jens Wendler J., Arne Leider A., Hans-Joachim Kuss H.-J., Summons R.E., and Hinrichs K.-U., 2009. Molecular-isotopic evidence of environmental and ecological changes across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in the Levant Platform of central Jordan. Organic Geochemistry 40, 553-568.
  • Love G.D., Grosjean E., Stalvies C., Fike D.A., Bradley A.S., Bhatia M., Meredith W., Snape C.E., Bowring S.A., Condon D.J., Grotzinger J.P. and Summons R.E., 2009. Molecular fossil evidence for the appearance of Demosponges during the Cryogenian Period. Nature 457, 718-722.
  • Grosjean E., Love G. D., Stalvies C., Fike D.A. and Summons R.E., 2009. Origin of petroleum in the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian South Oman Salt Basin. Organic Geochemistry 40, 87–110.
  • Gupta N.S., Briggs D.E.G., Landman N.H., Tanabe K. and Summons R.E., 2009. Molecular structure of organic components in cephalopods: evidence for oxidative cross linking in fossil marine invertebrates. Organic Geochemistry 39,1405-1414.
  • Pearson A., Leavitt W.D., Saenz J.P., Summons R.E., Tam, M.C.-M. and Close H.G., 2009. Diversity of hopanoids and squalene-hopene cyclases across a tropical land-sea gradient. Environmental Microbiology 11, 1208–1223.
  • Cao C., Love G.D., Hays L.E., Wang W., Shen S. and Summons R.E., 2009. Biogeochemical Evidence for a Euxinic Ocean and Ecological Disturbance Presaging the end-Permian Mass Extinction Event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288, 188-201.
  • Waldbauer J.R., Sherman L.S., Sumner D.Y. and Summons R.E., 2009. Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis. Precambrian Research 169, 28–47.
  • Bradley A.S., Hayes J.M. and Summons R.E., 2009. Extraordinary 13C enrichment of diether lipids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field suggests a carbon-limited ecosystem. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 102–118.